A “diaspora” refers to the movement of migrants or descendants of migrants who identify with a homeland but currently live outside of it. A diaspora is not a monolith, so clarifying who you are including in a description (for example: “members of,” “some of,” etc.) will help to avoid overly broad generalizations.
A “displaced person” or “internally displaced person” is someone who is forced to leave their home or place of residence. The latter term is somewhat formal; it may be clearer to the reader to mention that the individual is displaced within their home country.
The diversity immigrant visa program, a.k.a. “green card lottery,” is a US government program for receiving lawful permanent residence in the United States. If the origins of a migrant’s lawful permanent residence are important to a story, the formal term “diversity immigrant visa” is more accurate than “green card lottery,” though it’s helpful to consider the relevance of including someone’s method of entry in an unrelated story.
The Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act is a bill that aims to create a pathway to citizenship for undocumented immigrants who came to the US as children. Someone who qualifies for the DREAM Act is called a “DREAMer” or “Dreamer.” DREAMer and DACA recipient are not interchangeable terms — DREAMer refers to the wider population of undocumented immigrants brought to the US as children, not all of whom are eligible for DACA, so only DREAMers who have received DACA status are DACA recipients.
Language, Please is a living resource that will be regularly updated. We’re working hard on an entry for this topic — please check back in soon.
“Expulsion” refers to legal orders to leave the territory of a state. “Deportation” refers to the implementation of those orders. Be mindful when reporting on undocumented immigration of anything that could put a source at risk of legal action, and make sure to clearly explain how the information they are giving you would be used and any potential risks for them.
Family separation refers to the forcible separation of migrant children and families. In recent years, it has become associated with a particular period of government action in 2017-2018. When using the term, for clarity it’s helpful to distinguish between “forcible separation” or “separation by US Customs and Border Protection” and separation occurring through other circumstances, for instance accidental separation.
The term “family-based immigration” refers to a type of immigration that is based on family ties. It is also sometimes called “chain migration,” though this term is often used in coded racist ways and thus may be best restricted to direct quotes, with some explanation given.
A federally recognized Tribe is a legal description of a government-to-government relationship with an American Indian or Alaska Native tribal entity. A federally recognized Tribe may also be called a federally recognized Indian Nation, band, pueblo, community, or Native village; understanding the terms that members of these communities use to self-identify is helpful for accuracy and clarity. Explaining a Tribe’s status as recognized or unrecognized, and how that status affects issues facing the community, adds vital context for readers.
A green card allows a person to live and work in the United States, conferring the status of lawful permanent residence. Terms such as “green card marriage” are vague, contain assumptions about an individual’s situation, and can reinforce negative stereotypes.
Last updated 08/05/22
Migration is key to so many stories we tell about the world and its peoples, which makes it a challenging topic to cover in a nuanced way. Conflicts can involve the highest stakes, borders are continually shifting, and legal and cultural definitions are frequently at odds. Certain terms related to migration have also taken on specific cultural meanings in the US, and to use them could inadvertently appear to be endorsing a particular viewpoint.
This section of Language, Please aims to help journalists understand key immigration-related terms and the ways their use continues to evolve. This guidance is intended for US newsrooms and focuses on US policy.
This resource was informed by questions and discussions from our own newsrooms. It is a living document that will expand over time. It is not meant to be comprehensive or the definitive arbiter of language “rules” but instead aims to give context and inform thoughtful decision-making. Have a suggestion for an update, change, or addition? Please get in touch.
How to use: Browse the whole section or search for the term you need guidance on; click into any term for in-depth context, additional resources, and related terms.
In the context of immigration, assimilation typically refers to immigrants’ adoption of the majority group’s language and some of their cultural values. Historically in the US, it can have coded racist connotations, as it has often implied the absorption of dominant cultural norms. Terms such as integration or acculturation are possible alternatives, with more of an emphasis on a two-way process, allowing for the retention of native customs, language, and other cultural markers.
“Migrant” is an umbrella term for anyone who moves within or outside of their country of residence. Being specific about the situation in question and someone’s motivation for the move can help bring clarity to a story. For example, referring to people who are fleeing war or persecution as “refugees” will highlight the necessity of their move in a way that recognizes their situation.
A DACA recipient is an individual who has been granted protections under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. A person applies for DACA and, upon approval, “has DACA,” “has DACA status,” or is a “DACA recipient.” “DACAmented” is also a popular usage among some DACA recipients, though as not all recipients use the term, limiting it to those who self-identify in this way acknowledges that difference. Due to the potential legal ramifications of disclosing someone’s immigration status, it’s especially important to confirm with an individual that they are comfortable with the information being included in media coverage, and that its inclusion is necessary and relevant.
Get in Touch
Language, Please is a living resource and will be updated regularly. Have a question, suggestion, or addition? We’d love to hear from you.
Find an Inclusivity Reader
Access our inclusivity reader directory here.