Gaslighting is a form of manipulation that makes the victim doubt their perception of reality. The term is often used in coverage of abusive relationships and in the context of politicians making misleading statements. The rise in popular use of the term has caused some confusion about its precise definition. For example, unlike other forms of manipulation, gaslighting entails an intent to create confusion and self-doubt. For precision, it’s helpful to consider what makes gaslighting a distinct phenomenon when you decide whether the term applies to your coverage.
Harassment is hurtful speech or behavior, often intended to frighten, anger, or humiliate a person. It is typically rooted in bias against a marginalized group. It can involve offensive jokes, name-calling, insults, unwanted contact, provocative pictures, threats, and other hostile actions. Legal definitions for types of harassment can vary by state and don’t always match its use in everyday conversation (for example, “That person at the coffee shop was harassing me”). It’s important for media coverage to be clear and specific about whether instances of harassment meet legal criteria. For cases involving litigation, directly quoting court documents can help establish details of a given case even when facts are disputed and outcomes are pending.
Holistic medicine is a treatment philosophy that addresses all parts of a person: physical, emotional, and spiritual. It is not interchangeable with complementary or alternative medicine. Holistic medicine can certainly include complementary treatments like meditation or herbal supplements. However, holistic medicine is an approach to healing, not a specific method of treatment in itself.
Illness anxiety is characterized by severe, persistent worry over developing a health condition. The term “hypochondria” might be more familiar, but that term is outdated and can be stigmatizing. Keep in mind that racism, sexism, ableism, ageism, and sizeism can make it more likely for medical professionals to dismiss someone’s health concerns as health anxiety.
Insanity is a legal status in which a person’s psychiatric condition precludes them from being held responsible for their actions. Insanity is a legal status, not a clinical one, meaning someone cannot be diagnosed with insanity, but they can enter an insanity defense in court. Being mindful of which situation you’re reporting on when making language choices is important for accuracy.
Abuse that takes place between people who are romantically involved. When reporting on intimate partner violence as a phenomenon, gender-neutral language reinforces that it’s a form of harm that affects people of all genders.
Me Too/#MeToo is used to describe the social movement against sexual violence. The term is generally used with the hashtag when referring to relevant social media activities and without it when referring to the larger movement or specific allegations. While it can be commonplace in everyday conversation for people to use the term as a verb or in passive voice (e.g. “Person X was MeToo’ed,” “Person Y Shelly MeToo’ed Mr./Mrs. Person X”), this kind of phrasing leaves out context and specifics. The passive construction can also be read as positioning the abuser as the victim.
Mental health disorder refers to a collection of symptoms that cause a disturbance in one’s mental functioning, including cognition, behavior, and emotional regulation. Some prefer terms like “psychiatric condition” or “mental health issue” instead, as “disorder” can have stigmatizing implications.
Mental illness is a phrase used in mental health research to measure prevalence and seriousness of disorders that interfere with daily functioning. The frame of illness can be helpful in reinforcing that clinical mental health conditions are health issues and not personal failings. But the term can also carry negative connotations, so context matters when deciding when and how to use it. “Mental health condition” is a more expansive term.
A collection of drug withdrawal symptoms that occur after a child is born. It is caused by exposure to drugs in the womb. When researching or writing about NAS, keep an eye out for ableist rhetoric and racial biases.
Last updated 08/05/22
Mental health can be hard to talk about for people in their everyday lives, so it’s not surprising that reporting on the issue comes with its own challenges. Until relatively recently, in many circles, discussion of mental health issues was considered taboo, and terms that refer to clinical diagnoses were often used in flippant ways to describe perceptions of traits rather than actual medical conditions. Though we’ve come a long way, there’s plenty of evidence that stereotypes and myths related to mental health issues have stubbornly clung to the public consciousness.
This section of the Language, Please style guidance helps journalists recognize and avoid those stereotypes and other common pitfalls in reporting and to understand key mental health subjects in a nuanced way.
This resource was informed by questions and discussions from our own newsrooms. It is a living document that will update and expand over time. It is not meant to be comprehensive or the definitive arbiter of language “rules” but instead aims to give context and inform thoughtful decision-making. Have a suggestion for an update, change, or addition? Please get in touch.
How to use: Browse the whole section or search for the term you need guidance on; click into any term for in-depth context, additional resources, and related terms.
Neurodiversity refers to the presence of many different types of minds throughout the human race, all of which have valuable characteristics. The term aims to categorize autism, ADHD, and other developmental conditions as naturally occurring traits in the human population rather than pathologies to be “cured.” A group or population can be neurodiverse, but a single person cannot, and the term generally isn’t used in a person-first way (e.g., “a person with neurodiversity”). An individual could be referred to as a neurominority or neurologically marginalized, or described with their diagnosis; some also call themselves “neurodivergent.”
Collective trauma refers to society’s interpretation of and reaction to a calamity that affects an entire community. Commonly used examples of events that caused collective trauma include the Great Depression, 9/11, the enslavement of Black people, and the Covid-19 pandemic. Exploration of the ways collective trauma can manifest in individuals and communities adds essential context to news coverage.
There is no single official definition of sexual misconduct. While it can be helpful for talking about a wide range of behaviors, some advocates have criticized the term for being overly vague or minimizing. If discussing specific situations or accusations, consider what level of detail will provide necessary context without violating the privacy or well-being of those involved, and without using unnecessarily sensationalized or salacious language.
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