Colorism is a discriminatory practice in which preferential treatment is determined by the lightness of a person’s skin. It differs from racism in that it often exists among members of a particular racial or ethnic group, rather than between different groups.
Critical race theory (CRT) argues that racism is an intrinsic part of US systems and institutions, and that people are either oppressed or have privilege based on their race. The term has been misused by some groups and organizations to describe any teachings about racism or critical examination of US history. An explanation of what critical race theory actually is and how the term may be misused or weaponized in certain cases for political gain is important for clarity.
Cultural appropriation is the taking of signifiers or artifacts of a culture not one’s own without any context of the original culture. It contrasts with cultural appreciation, a good-faith effort to explore and connect with another culture. Religious appropriation refers to the taking of practices or signifiers of a particular religious group by people or entities that are not part of that religious group. Negotiating reporting on cultural appropriation can be challenging since it requires a nuanced understanding of the power dynamics at play between communities in any given scenario. In the case of religious appropriation, increasing your religious literacy can help to navigate reporting on religious communities and the potential issues of appropriation that might arise.
Decolonization is active resistance to colonialism, which attempts to shift power dynamics and focus from colonizers to the colonized nation or Indigenous nation or country.
Discrimination is unfair treatment based on specific characteristic(s) of a person or group of people, such as race, age, or gender identity. It can affect access to employment, health care, housing, education, and more. Exploring the systemic factors that entrench and contribute to discrimination adds vital context to discussion of the issue in media coverage.
Diversity involves the composition of a group or a community of people. It can refer to race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, national origin, religion, and disability, among other identities and experiences. Diversity should be used to describe groups or populations rather than individuals, as a person cannot be “diverse.”
When writing about the institution of slavery in the US, many advocates offer the term “enslaved person” to separate a person’s identity from their involuntary circumstance. Similarly, many argue that using “enslaver” rather than “owner” or “master” serves to disempower the enslaver and humanize the enslaved person. However, some scholars argue that phrasing such as “enslaved person” amounts to sugarcoating the brutal reality of slavery.
Ethnicity is a social construct that refers to common cultural markers such as language, ancestry, beliefs, and customs that may be used to identify groups of people (or that they may use to self-identify). As with any identifier, following a person’s preference whenever possible, including only when pertinent to coverage, and identifying people equally (don’t only identify people of one ethnicity but not others) is important for precision. Compound ethnic identities do not need to be hyphenated (e.g., Indian American, British Nigerian, etc.).
The term “fatphobia” in practice means entrenched cultural prejudices and stigma directed at those who are considered overweight or obese according to a white American aesthetic that some cultural historians describe as originating in reaction to the enslaved female African body. Some fat acceptance activists dislike the veneer of mental health terminology involved in using the “phobia” suffix, arguing that terms like sizeism, anti-fat bias, or anti-fatness are more accurate. If necessary and relevant to coverage to use “fatphobia” or a related term, some explanation of the chosen term can be helpful for clarity. Careful coverage will also consider systemic factors such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status that can affect both someone’s weight and the degree of stigma they may face for their weight. It’s also important to understand and acknowledge that anti-fat bias, and coverage that furthers those attitudes, can have negative health consequences.
A federally recognized Tribe is a legal description of a government-to-government relationship with an American Indian or Alaska Native tribal entity. A federally recognized Tribe may also be called a federally recognized Indian Nation, band, pueblo, community, or Native village; understanding the terms that members of these communities use to self-identify is helpful for accuracy and clarity. Explaining a Tribe’s status as recognized or unrecognized, and how that status affects issues facing the community, adds vital context for readers.
Last updated 01/27/23
Race and ethnicity are critical aspects of people’s and communities’ identities. They have often been viewed as interchangeable but are two distinct identifiers. This section of the Language, Please style guidance aims to help journalists accurately cover the nuances in stories surrounding race and ethnicity, recognize the systemic and interconnected ways that race and ethnicity shape experiences, and write stories with care and concern for the individuals involved.
This resource was informed by questions and discussions from our own newsrooms. It is a living document that will update and expand over time. It is not meant to be comprehensive or the definitive arbiter of language “rules” but instead aims to give context and inform thoughtful decision-making. Have a suggestion for an update, change, or addition? Please get in touch.
How to use: Browse the whole section or search for the term you need guidance on; click into any term for in-depth context, additional resources, and related terms.
Police brutality is the use of excessive force against people by law enforcement. It disproportionately affects Black and brown people. Mentioning racial disparities in police killings in related stories, and linking to a reliable source such as Mapping Police Violence, can help illustrate the scope of the issue.
Collective trauma refers to society’s interpretation of and reaction to a calamity that affects an entire community. Commonly used examples of events that caused collective trauma include the Great Depression, 9/11, the enslavement of Black people, and the Covid-19 pandemic. Exploration of the ways collective trauma can manifest in individuals and communities adds essential context to news coverage.
Black is the racial term used to describe people with roots in the African diaspora; physical markers that may typically be used to distinguish those considered Black from other racial groups include skin tone and hair texture. Though African American and Black are often used interchangeably, the former may be understood as a marker of an ethnic and cultural identity as opposed to a strictly racial one. Following an individual’s preferences when determining if, when, and how to use either identifier, including the capitalization of Black, ensures coverage reflects how a person self-identifies.
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